Academic Staff

Sandy To

Associate Professor

FJ603

2766 6587

2362 5267

Brief Biosketch

Dr. Sandy To obtained her MPhil in Material Science from Brunel University in the UK in 1993 and her PhD in Ultra-precision Machining Technology from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University in 2000. She is an Associate Professor of the Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Associate Director of State Key Laboratory in Ultra-precision Machining Technology and Advanced Optics Manufacturing Centre. Dr. To is an active researcher who focuses on industry-related and applied research. She has published more than 100 international journal papers and 90 international conference papers in various fields of precision engineering, advanced optics manufacturing and material science. She has secured 4 CERG/GRF and 6 ITF projects as Principal Investigator (PI)/Project Coordinator (PC) over the last five years. She has successfully obtained a total amount of HK$20 millions research grants of which HK$ 12 million is in PI/PC capacity and HK8.8 million is in deputy PC.

 

Awards

  1. Natural Science Award (Second Class) from the Ministry of Education in Mainland China, “Mesoplasticity Studies of Cutting Mechanism in Ultra-precision Machining” (2011).
  2. Research Grant Achievement Award in Faculty of Engineering for outstanding performance and achievement in securing external competitive research grants (2010).
  3. Technology Progress Award (Second Class), Ministry of Education of PRC China, “Ultra- Precision Machining Technology of Freeform Optics and its Applications” (2009).
  4. Industrial and Engineering Services Grant Achievement Award in Faculty of Engineering for outstanding performance and achievement in securing external competitive research grants (2009).
  5. Grand Award- International Press Prize, 36th International Exhibition of Inventions, New Techniques & Products, Geneva (2008).
  6. A Gold Metal from the competition with “special mention” by the jury, 36th International Exhibition of Inventions, New Techniques & Products,  Geneva (2008).
  7. Award of the High Scientific and Technological Level of the Invention-presented by Romania Ministry of Education, Research and Youth, 36th International Exhibition of Inventions, New Techniques & Products, Geneva (2008).
  8. Faculty of Engineering Industrial and Engineering Services Grant Achievement Award, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (2008).
  9. Faculty/School Awards for Outstanding Performance/Achievement 2006/2007, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (2007).
  10. Most Valuable Consultancy Project Award, PolyU Technology and Consultancy Company Ltd. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (2006).
  11. Team Award in Research and Scholarly Activities, Faculty Award for Outstanding Performance/Achievement 2003/2004, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (2004).
  12. Team Award for Service to the Professional Community, The President’s Awards for Outstanding Performance/Achievement 2000, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (2000).

 

Committees of International Conferences

  1. Secretariat of the International Organizing Committee of the International Manufacturing Conference in China (IMCC).
  2. Member of the Organizing Committee of the Guangzhou-Hong Kong- Macao-Taiwan Engineer Forum, Hong Kong,  21-22 August 2004.
  3. Member of Organizing Committee of the International Conference on Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, Changsha, China, 28-30 October, 2002.
  4. Secretariat of  The 10th International Manufacturing Conference in China (IMCC 2002), Xiamen, China, 11-13 October, 2002.
  5. Member of the Organizing Committee of the Symposium on Nano-metrology in Precision Engineering, jointly organized by the Department  of Manufacturing Engineering of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the National Metrology and Measurement Society, Hong Kong , 24-25, November, 1998.

 

Teaching and Research Specialties

She is an active researcher who focuses on basic, industrial-related and applied research in Ultra-precision Machining; Advanced Optics Manufacturing; Precision Injection Moulding and Material Science. The subjects I have been teaching are: Tool Design (ISE306); Advanced Mould and Die (ISE419); Advanced Manufacturing Technology (ISE551) and the Special Topic of Ultra-precision Machining Technology (ISE6080)

 

Professional Services

  • Member of The Institution of Engineering and Technology, MIET (2007).
  • Member of the International Society for Optical Engineering (2004).
  • Member of the Hong Kong Photographic and Optics Manufacturers Association (2000).

 

External Research Funding Secured

Secured 4 CERG/GRF, 6 ITF projects and 1 NSFC as Principal Investigator (PI)/Project Coordinator (PC) over the last six years. I have successfully obtained a total amount of HK$20 millions research grants of which HK$ 12 million is in PI/PC capacity and HK8.8 million is in deputy PC.

  1. NSFC-12/13 (PI): The study of in-process Tool Wear Monitoring and Prediction in Ultra-Precision Raster Milling, (RMB790,000, 01/2013- 12/2016)
  2. Hong Kong PhD Fellowship Scheme 11/12- (Chief Supervisor), Multiscale Modelling and Simulation of Brittle-Ductile Cutting Mode Transition in Ultra-Precision Machining (HKD780,000, PF10-12032)
  3. GRF-09/10 (PI): 3D Modelling and Measurement of Tool Wear in Ultraprecision Raster Milling, (HKD 801,491, 01/2011- 12/ 2013, PolyU 5287/10E)
  4. GRF-08/09 (PI): A Study of Electropulsing Treatment on Machinability of Heat Treatable Alloys in Ultra-precision Diamond Turning, (HKD 950,400, 11/2009- 10/2012, PolyU 5316/09E)
  5. GRF-07/08 (PI): Effect of Cutting Strategy on Surface Structural Changes in Ultra-precision Raster Milling of Heat-treatable Alloys, (HKD 598,399, 10/2008- 03/2011, PolyU 5291/08E)
  6. CERF-05/06 (PI): Stress Induced Microstructural Changes in the Ultra-precision Machining of Heat-treatable Alloys,(HKD 408,500, 11/2006- 04/2009, PolyU 5283/06E)
  7. ITF-(PI): Research and Development of Manufacturing Equipment and Processing Technology for Ultra-precision Rollers Embossing of Advanced Optical Products, (HK$ 1,495,000, 01/2012, GHP/045/10SZ)
  8. ITF-(PI): Development of Bulk Metallic Glass Moulds for High Precision Optical Products, (HK$999,000, 03/2011- 12/2012, ITS/118/10)
  9. ITF-(PI ): Development of a Process Modelling and Optimization System for Supporting Design and Fabrication of Advanced Freeform Progressive Plastic Lenses for Optometric Applications, (HKD998, 000, 04/2010 - 01/2012, ITS/389/09)
  10. ITF-(PC): The Development and Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for the Self-cleaning Plastic Plate, (HK$983,250, 03/2010- 31/12/2011, ITS/390/09)
  11. ITF-(PI): Design and Development of Compatible Optical Pick-up Head for Blu-ray and China Blue High Definition Disc, (HK$1,000,000, 11/2009- 08/2011, ITS/256/09)
  12. ITF-(PC & PI): Development of Design and Manufacturing Capability of Micro Lenses for Zoom Cameras used in Mobile Phones , (HK$984,000, 01/2007- 03/2008, ITS/126/06)
  13. ITF-(Co-PI ): Development of capability on Supporting the Design and Manufacture of Superfinished Orthopaedic Implants for Bio-medical Applications, (HK$6,200,000, 04/2007- 04/2008, GHP/052/06)
  14. ITF-(Deputy-PC ): Design and Fabrication of HID and LED Lighting System for Automotive illumination (HKD7,700,000, 07/2005- 01/2008, GHS/073/04)
  15. ITF-(Deputy-PC ): The Development of Design and Manufacturing Capability of Freeform Optical Elements and Optical Microstructures for Photonics and Telecommunication Products (HKD8,200,000, 04/2002- 09/2005, ITS/201/01)

 

Publications

She has published more than 100 refereed journal papers and has presented more than 90 international conferences papers. She has also published two research books, one book chapters as co-author. For the commercialization of the results of her research work, 6 patents have also been granted and 7 patents have been filed. Some selected papers and patents are listed as following:

Selective papers:

  1. Wang, S. J., To, S. and Cheung, C. F., “Effect of Workpiece Material on Surface Roughness in Ultraprecision Raster Milling”, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 27, Issue 10 (Sep 2012)
  2. Zhang, D., To, S., Zhu, Y.H., Wang, H. Tang, G.Y., “Dynamic electropulsing induced phase transformations and their effects on ultra-precision machining of a cold-rolled alloy AZ91”, Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 16-21, (Jan 2012)
  3. Zhang, D., To, S., Zhu, Y.H., Wang, H. and Tang, G.Y., “Static electropulsing-induced microstructural changes and their effect on the ultra-precision machining of cold-rolled AZ91 alloy”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A,  Vol 43, Issue 4, pp.1341- 1346 (2012)
  4. Zhang, S.J., To, S., Cheung, C.F.,  Wang, H.T., Dynamic characteristics of an aerostatic bearing spindle and its influence on surface topography in ultra-precision diamond turning” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 62,  pp.1 -12 (Nov 2012)
  5. To S., Wang, S.J., “An investigation on surface generation in ultra-precision raster milling”, International Journal of Nanomanufacturing, Vol. 7, No.3-4 pp. 298-310 (Sep 2011)
  6. To, S., Wang, H., “Finite element modelling of squeezing effect in ultra precision diamond turning”, Materials Research Innovations”, Vol. 15, pp. S175-S178, Supplement: Suppl. 1   (Feb 2011)
  7. Cheng, C.T., To, S., Chan, C.Y., Cheung, C.F., “An investigation on the effect of ultra-precision machined patterns in wetting transition”, International Journal of Nanomanufacturing, Vol. 7, No. 3-4, pp.245-266 (2011)
  8. Wang, H., To, S., Chan, C.Y., Cheung, C.F. and Lee, W.B., “Dynamic modelling of shear band formation and tool-tip vibration in ultra-precision diamond turning” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol, 51, pp512-519. (Jun 2011) Project code: 5391/08E
  9. Zhu, Y.H., To, S., Liu, X.M., “Use of EBSD to study electropulsing induced reverse phase transformations in a Zn-Al alloy (ZA22)”, Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 242, Issue: 1, pp. 62-69. (Apr 2011)
  10. Zhu, Y.H., To, S., Liu, X.M., Hu, G.L., “Effect of static electropulsing on microstructure and elongation of a Zn-Al alloy (ZA22)”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A- Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, Vol. 42A,  Issue 7, pp. 1933-1940, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-010-0591-x. (Jul 2011)
  11. Zhu, Y.H., To, S., Liu, X.M., Hu, G.L. and Xu, Q., “Static electropulsing induced phase transformations of a cold deformed ZA27 alloy”, Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 26, No. 14, pp.1696-1701. (Jul 2011) Project code: 5316/09E
  12. To, S., Zhu, Y.H., Lee, W.B., Liu, X.M., “Dynamic electropulsing induced phase transformations in a furnace cooled Zn-Al based alloy (ZA22)”, Materials Transactions., Vol 51, Issue: 11, pp.1997-2004. (Nov 2010)  
  13. Jiang, J.B., To, S., Lee, W.B. C.F. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight”, Optik, Vol.121, pp.1761-1765 (2010)
  14. Wang, H., To, S., Chan, C.Y., Cheung, C.F., Lee, W.B., “A study of regularly spaced shear bands and morphology of serrated chip formation in microcutting process”,   Scripta Materialia, Vol. 63, Issue 2, pp. 227-230. (Jul 2010)  
  15. Wang H., To, S., Chan, C.Y., Cheung, C.F., Lee W.B., “A theoretical and experimental investigation of the tool-tip vibration and its influence upon surface generation in single point diamond turning”, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture,doi:10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2009.12.003, Vol. 50,  Issue: 3, pp.241-252. (Mar 2010)
  16. Wang, H., To, S., Chan, C.Y., Cheung, C.F., Lee, W.B., “Elastic strain induced shear bands in the microcutting process”, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 50, Issue 1. pp. 9-18.  (Jan 2010)
  17. Wang, S.J., To, S., Chan, C.Y., Cheung, C.F., Lee, W.B., “A study of the cutting-induced heating effect on the machined surface in ultra-precision raster milling of 6061 Al alloy”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 51,  Issue 1-4, pp. 69-78. (Nov 2010)
  18. Zhu, Y.H., To, S., Lee, W.B., Zhang, S.J., Cheung, C.F., “Ultra-precision raster milling-induced phase decomposition and plastic deformation at the surface of a Zn–Al-based alloy”, Scripta Materialia, Vol. 62, Issue 2, pp.101-104, available online 24 Sep 2009.  (Jan 2010)
  19. To, S., Zhu, Y. H., Lee, W. B., Liu, X. M., Jiang, Y. B., “Effects of current density on elongation of an electropulsing treated Zn-Al based alloy”,  Materials Transactions, The Japan Institute of Metals,  Vol. 50, No.12, pp.2772-2777. (Dec 2009)
  20. To, S., Chan, C.Y., Zhang, S.J., Cheung, C.F., Zhu, Y.H., Lee, W.B., “Microstructural characterization of an ultra-precision machined surface of a Zn-Al based alloy”, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol.19, No.5, Art no. 054005. (May 2009)
  21. To, S., Zhu, Y.H., Lee, W.B., Tang, G.Y., Liu, X.M., Jiang, Y.B., “Effects of dynamic electropulsing on phase transformation of a Zn-Al based alloy” Materials Transactions, Vol. 50, No.5, pp. 1105-1112. (May 2009)
  22. To, S., Zhu, Y.H., Lee, W.B., Liu, X.M., Jiang, Y.B., Tang, G.Y., “Effect of current density on electropulsing- induced phase transformations in a Zn-Al based alloy”, Applied Physics A-Materials Science & Processing, Vol. 96, No. 4, pp.939-944, available online 28 Jan 2009. (Sep 2009)
  23. Wang, W.K., To, S., Cheung, C.F., Jiang, J.B., Wang, B., “A new method to test the Photometric Characteristics of Lamps for Motor Vehicles”, Optik, Vol. 120, Issue 11 pp.549-552. (Jun 2009)
  24. Yin, Z. Q., To, S., Lee, W. B., “Wear characteristics of diamond tool in ultraprecision raster milling”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology,Vol. 44, No 7-8, pp. 638-647. (Oct 2009)
  25. Zhu, Y.H., To, S., Lee, W.B., Liu, X.M., Jiang, Y.B., Tang, G.Y., “Electropulsing induced phase transformation in a Zn-Al based alloy”, Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 24, No.8, pp. 2661-2669. (Aug 2009)
  26. Zhu, Y.H., To, S., Lee, W.B., Liu, X.M., Jiang, Y.B., Tang, G.Y., “Effects of dynamic electropulsing on microstructure and elongation of a Zn–Al alloy” Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 501, Issues 1-2,  pp. 125-132. (Feb 2009)
  27. To, S., Zhu, Y.H., Lee, W.B., “Microstructural changes at the ultra-precision raster milled surface of Zn-Al based alloy”, Materials Transactions, Vol. 49, Issue: 4, pp 698-703. (Apr 2008)
  28. To, S., Zhu, Y.H., Lee, W.B., “Microstructural changes at the ultra-precision machined surface of Zn-Al based alloy”, International Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 99, Issue 3, pp.307-312. (Mar 2008)
  29. To, S., Zhu, Y.H., Lee, W.B., “Effects of cutting depth on the surface microstructure of a Zn–Al alloy during ultra-precision machining” Applied Surface Science, Vol. 254, Issue 6, pp. 1559-1564. (Jan 2008)
  30. To, S., Zhu, Y.H., Lee, W.B., “Use of EBSD to identify phases in inter-dendrite region of a cast Zn-Al based alloy ( ZA27) “ Journal of Microscopy-Oxford, Vol.225, Issue 2, pp.170- 174. (2007)
  31. To, S., Wang, E.Q., Lee, W.B., Cheung, C.F., “Investigation on error factor of injection molding plastic for freeform optics”, Journal of Applied Optics, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp.684-688 (2007) (Chinese)
  32. To, S., Zhu, Y.H., Lee, W.B., "Ultra-precision machining induced phase decomposition at surface of Zn-Al based alloy”, Applied Surface Science, Volume 253, Issue 4, pp. 2165-2170. (Dec 2006)
  33. To, S., Wang, E.Q., Lee, W.B., Cheung, C.F., “Investigation into virtual manufacturing procedure for freeform optics”, Journal of Applied Optics, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp.485-490 (2006). (Chinese)
  34. Gao, D., To, S., Lee, W.B., “Tool path generation for machining of optical freeform surfaces by an ultra-precision multiaxis machine tool”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B-Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Vol. 220, No. 12, pp.2021-2026. (Dec 2006)
  35. Zhu, Y.H., To, S., Liu, X.M., Lee, W.B., “Microstructural changes inside the lamellar structures of alloy ZA27”, Materials Characterization, Vol. 57, Issues 4-5, pp. 326-332. (Dec 2006)
  36. To, S., Zhu, Y.H., Lee, W.B., “Ultra-precision machining induced micro-plastic deformation in Zn-Al based alloy”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.167, Issues 2-3, pp.536-541. (Aug 2005)
  37. Lee, W.B., To, S., “Mesoplasticity and its applications in micro-scale deformation processing”, Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 274-276, pp.43-50 (2004)
  38. Lee, W.B., To, S., Cheung, C.F., Gao, D, Chiu, W.M., “Ultra-precision machining technique for optical freeform and its application” Manufacturing Technology and Machine Tool, No.1, pp.17-19. (2004) (Chinese)
  39. To, S., Lee, W. B., Cheung C.F., “Orientation changes of aluminium single crystals in ultra-precision diamond turning”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 140, Issues 1-3, pp. 346-351. (Sep 2003)
  40. Lee, W.B., To, S.,  Sze, Y.K., Cheung, C.F., “Effect of material anisotropy on shear angle prediction in metal cutting- a mesoplasticity approach”, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol.45, No.10, pp.1739-1749. (Oct 2003)
  41. To, S., Lee, W.B., Zhu, Y.H, “Ultra-precision-machining induced surface structural change of Zn-Al alloy”,Materials Science and Engineering A- Structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing, Vol.A325, pp.497-502. (Feb 2002)
  42. Cheung, C.F., To, S., Lee, W.B., “Anisotropy of surface roughness in diamond turning of brittle single crystals”, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp.251-267. (2002)
  43. To, S., Cheung, C.F., Lee, W.B., “Influence of material swelling on surface roughness in diamond turning of single crystals”, Materials Science and Technology,Vol.17, pp.102-108. (Jan 2001)
  44. To, S., Lee, W.B., “Deformation behavior of aluminium single crystals in ultraprecision diamond turning”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.133, pp.296-300. (2001)
  45. Lee, W.B., To, S., Cheung, C.F., “Effect of crystallographic orientation in diamond turning of copper single crystals”, Scripta Materialia, Vol 42, pp. 937-945. (2000)
  46. To, S., Lee, W.B., Chan, C.Y., “Effect of machining velocity on the crystallographic texture in a diamond turned aluminium single crystal”, Textures and Microstructures, Vol. 31/4, pp.249-261. (1999)
  47. Lee, W.B., To, S., Chan, C.Y., “Deformation band formation in metal cutting”,Scripta Materialia, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp.439-443. (1999)
  48. To, S., Lee, W.B, Chan, C.Y., “Ultraprecision diamond turning of aluminium single crystals”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 63, No. 1-3, pp.157-162. (Jan 1997)
  49. Lee, W.B., To, S., “Computer modelling of the effect of rolling schedule on the plastic anisotropy of cold-rolled aluminium sheets”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.48, No.1-4, pp. 173-178. (Jan 1995)
  50. To, S., Lee, W.B., Ralph, B., “Deformation and recrystallization in cross-rolled Al-Cu precipitation alloys”, Journal of Materials Science, Vol.29, pp.269-275. (Jan 1994)
  51. To, S., Lee, W.B., Ralph, B., “Recrystallization textures of a cross-rolled aluminium alloy”, Textures and Microstructures, Vol.157-162, Part 2, pp.327-332. (1994)

Selective patents:

  1. To,S, Jiang, J.B., Cheung, C.F., Lee, W.B., and Cheung, K.C., “Design of side emitting lens for LED lighting”, PRC Patent No. ZL200510087410.5 (2008).
  2. To,S, Jiang, J.B., Cheung, C.F. and  Lee, W.B., “A hybrid microlens and progressive V-groove design of backlight system for mobile and telecommunication products”,  PRC Patent No. ZL200510083259.8 (2008).
  3. To, S., Jiang, J.B., Cheung, C.F., and  Lee, W.B., “Freeform Lens for LED Roadlamps”, PRC Patent, Filed, Patent File No.200710123944.8 (2007).
  4. To, S.,  Cheung, C.F.,  Lee, W.B., Jiang, J.B., and Wang, W.K., “The Mechanism of Zoom Lens  Device” , PRC Patent, Filed, Patent File No. 200810091856.9 (2008).
  5. To, S., Cheung, C.F., Lee, W.B., Jiang, J.B. and Wang, W.K., “ Zoom lens module with a programmable and microcontroller-controlled”,  PRC Patent, Filed, Patent File No. 200810134895.2 (2008).